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To visit this article presented by the National Kidney and Urologic Disease Information Clearinghouse for more information on how URR and Kt/V are used to assess dialysis adequacy in general use.

National Association of Nephrology Technicians/Technologists


For more information on reducing the risk of cross-contamination linked to hemodialysis treatment. This article is reprinted from the August 2000 issue of the NANT Newsletter. 


For New Reuse Regulations of SUD’s in Clinics, Units, and Hospitals! FDA Issues Final Guidance on Reuse of Single Use Devices 08/02/2000! 


For more information on Improved Urea Reduction Ratio and Kt/V in Large Hemodialysis Patients using two dialyzers in parallel. Study is provided by the University of Virginia.


Improving Adequacy of  Dialysis: Using In-Series Dialyzers


To view Case Study from the December 1999 issue of the ANNA Journal by Hazel A. Dennison, MSN, RN, CNN, CS.


To view a comparison of dual dialyzers used in 
parallel and series to improve urea clearance in large hemodialysis patients. Study completed by Benjamin A. Fritz, Sheila Doss, Linda M McCann, and Elizabeth M. Wrone.


For improving URR’s in the Dialysis Unit.


For a study about Hemofiltration and double high flux dialysis: risks and benefits


For Clinical Use of high-efficiency hemodialysis treatments: long-term assessment